Our Cordillera area presents five types of climate directly related to altitude as well as wind and sun exposure. The first, known according to the Köppen Classification as " arid region climate ", is related to the fluvial Yungas. These geographic areas receive little rain during the summer and average a yearly temperature of 17°C. They are affected by the smallest foothills in the eastern mountain range valley, which face and arrive at the Marañon River.
The second type of climate is "temperate, moderate, and rainy". It fits in with the characteristics of the Quechua stratum: dry winters and rainy summers.This type of climate is found in medium altitudes, in the foothills of the eastern side of both Cordillera Blanca and Cordillera Negra. It also appears where each axis faces the other and we enter the area comprised by the medium course of the Santa Valley (approximately from the vecinity of Carhuaz until we reach town named Sucre ).
The third type of climate corresponds to " cold weather " (boreal). Its characteristics are the same as those found in the Suni stratum: dry winters with average temperatures over 10°C during at least four months. This type of climate is found on the upper Santa Valley. The characteristics of a cold climate are also present in the higher surrounding areas of our two main axis between altitudes ranging from 2,600 m. (8,530 ft.) to 4,000 m. (13,120 ft.) .
The fourth type of climate appearing between 4,000 m. (13,120 ft.) and 4,800 m. (15,744 ft.) of altitude according to Köppen, corresponds to that of " dry high-mountain tundra." The mean monthly temperature of the warmest month is slightly over 0°C and similar to the climate in the Puna region. The only difference is that these areas are not as large as in the southern Peruvian states. That is, in Ancash, said areas are found in the highest spots in Cordillera Negra as well as in periglacial spaces and corridors in Cordillera Blanca.
Finally, Köppen describes the last type as having "permanent high mountain snows," It is concentrated especially over the entire Cordillera Blanca and is characterized by having a temperature below 0°C throughout the year.
Huascaran National Park comprises areas that range from 2,400 m. (7,872 ft.) to 6,768 m. (22,200 ft.) of altitude. Consequently, this protected area houses the following natural regions: Yunga , Quechua , Suni or Janca , Puna and Cordillera. However, its being located only 1,000 km away from the equator causes the climate to be temparate. It is characterized by two alternating seasons, a dry period and a wet season, a wide range of temperatures during the day and relatively little variation at night.
Precipitation is not homogeneously distributed in the region. In actuality, the highest peaks in Cordillera Banca form a barrier against the mass of moist air coming from the Amazon region. For this reason, there is greater precipitation in the 6,000 m. (19,680 ft.) peaks than in Callejon de Huaylas. However, depending on size or strength, some masses of air can cross Cordillera Blanca and cover the Cordillera Negra peaks with snow. However, this snow melts in less than three days.